National D6 Diesel
Straight Run CST 380 Fuel Oil
Number 6 fuel oil is a high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to 220 - 260 °F (104 - 127 °C).
Residual means the material remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have boiled off. The residue may contain various undesirable impurities including 2 percent water and one-half percent mineral soil. D6 fuel is also known as residual fuel oil (RFO), by the Navy specification of Bunker C, or by the Pacific Specification of PS-400
D6 fuel is used mostly for generators.
The price of d6 diesel traditionally rises during colder months as demand for heating oil rises, which is refined in much the same way.
Because of recent changes in d6 fuel quality regulations, additional refining is required to remove sulfur, which contributes to a sometimes higher cost.
In many parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom and Australia, d6 diesel may be priced higher than petrol.
Reasons for higher-priced d6 diesel include the shutdown of some refineries in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricanes, diversion of mass refining capacity to gasoline production, and a recent transfer to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), which causes infrastructural complications.
In Sweden, a d6 diesel fuel designated as MK-1 (class 1 environmental diesel) is also being sold; this is a ULSD that also has a lower aromatics content, with a limit of 5%. This d6 fuel is slightly more expensive to produce than regular ULSD.
D6 Diesel Standards and Classification
CCAI and CII are two indexes which describe the ignition quality of residual fuel oil, and CCAI is especially often calculated for marine fuels.
Despite this marine fuels are still quoted on the international bunker markets with their maximum viscosity (which is set by the ISO 8217 standard - see below) due to the fact that marine engines are designed to use different viscosities of fuel.
The unit of viscosity used is the Centistoke and the d6 fuel most frequently quoted are listed below in order of cost, the least expensive first-
* IFO 380 - Intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
* IFO 180 - Intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
* LS 380 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
* LS 180 - Low-sulphur (<1.5%) intermediate d6 fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
* MDO - Marine diesel oil.
* MGO - Marine gasoil.
D6 Diesel Uses Today
D6 fuel oil is less useful because it is so viscous that it has to be heated with a special heating system before use and it contains relatively high amounts of pollutants, particularly sulfur, which forms sulfur dioxide upon combustion.
However, its undesirable properties make it very cheap. In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available.
Since it requires heating before use, residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier.
D6 diesel oil is also a delicate procedure, which is inappropriate to do on small, fast moving vehicles. However, power plants and large ships are able to use residual fuel oil.
Residual fuel oil was used more frequently in the past. It powered boilers, railroad steam locomotives and steamships.
Locomotives now use diesel; steamships are not as common as they were previously due to their higher operating costs (most LNG carriers use steam plants, as "boil-off" gas emitted from the cargo can be used as a fuel source); and most boilers now use heating oil or natural gas.
However, some industrial boilers still use D6 fuel and so do a few old buildings, including in New York City.
The city estimates that the 1% of its buildings that burn d6 fuel are responsible for 86% of the soot pollution generated by all buildings in the city.
New York has made the phase out of these fuel grades part of its environmental plan, PlaNYC, because of concerns for the health effects caused by fine particulates.
Toby Beavers ~ 434-979-0005